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【皖枞高中学校】 高中英语倒装句讲解
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【皖枞高中学校】 高中英语倒装句讲解

发布时间:2015-04-05  阅读次数:778次

 倒装句分为全部倒装和部分倒装

 14.1 倒装句之全部倒装

  全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:

 1 here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run等表示来去或状态的动词。例如:

   Then came the chairman. 那时总裁来了。

   Here is your letter. 你的信。

 2 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如:

   Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。

   Ahead sat an old woman. 前面坐着一个老妪。

  注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如:

Here he comes. 他来了。    

Away they went. 他们走开了。

 

14.2 倒装句之部分倒装

部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句子的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, doesdid,并将其置于主语之前。

 1. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time决不, in no way, not until 等。例如:

   Never have I seen such a performance. 从未见过如此糟糕的表演。

   Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 无论如何你不会找到这个问题的答案的。

   Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 母亲一直到孩子入睡后离开房间。

  Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如:

   I have never seen such a performance.

   ---never have I seen such a performance.

   The mother didn\'t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

    ---not until the child fell asleep the mother did leave the room.

典型例题  

1) Why can\'t I smoke here?

   At no time___ in the meeting-room

A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted

C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

2 Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.

   A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn\'t man know  D. did man know

  答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在CD 中选一个。

  改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。

 

14.3 以否定词开头作部分倒装

Not onlybut also, Hardly/Scarcelywhen, No sooner than等,要倒装。例如:

  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他没有收下礼物,还狠狠批评了送礼的人。

  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。

  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。

典型例题

No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.

A. the game began      B. has the game begun

C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun

答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not onlybut also, no soonerthan, hardly when scarcely when 等等。

注意:只有当Not only but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构,如Not only you but also I am fond of music

 

14.4 so, neither, nor作部分倒装

  用这些词表示\"\"\"也不\" 的句子要部分倒装。例如:    

  Tom can speak French. So can Jack. 汤姆会讲法语,杰克也会。

  If you won\'t go, neither will I.你不去,我也不去。

典型例题

  ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?

  ---I don\'t know, _____.

  A. nor don\'t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don\'t care neither  D. I don\'t care also

答案:B. nor为增补意思\"也不关心\",因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don\'t 再次否定,C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。D缺乏连词。

  注意:so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为\"的确如此\"例如:

  Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. 汤姆邀我去踢球,我去了。

  ---It\'s raining hard.---So it is. 雨下得真大。是呀。

 

14.5 only在句首倒装的情况。例如:

  Only in this way, can you learn English well. 只有这样,你才能学好英语。

  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 叫了三次,他才来参加会议。

  如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装。例如:

  Only when he is seriously ill does he ever stay in bed. 病得狠重时,他才卧床休息。

 

14.6 as, though 引导的倒装句

  as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。但需注意:

  1 句首名词不能带任何冠词。

  2 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。例如:

   Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 他工作很努力,但总不能让人满意。

注意:让步状语从句中,有thoughalthough时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though yet可连用。

  

14.7 其他部分倒装

1 so that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。例如:

So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得很,动也不敢动。

2 在某些表示祝愿的句型中。例如:

  May you all be happy. 愿你们都快乐。

3 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。例如:

  Were I you, I would try it again. 我是你的话,就再试一次。

典型例题:

1Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is  

A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didn\'t man know  D. did man know

答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。

2Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. 

A. didn\'t I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn\'t realize D. I realize

  答案为B

3 Do you know Tom bought a new car?

  I don\'t know, ___.

  A. nor don\'t I care  B. nor do I care 

  C. I don\'t care neither D. I don\'t care also

答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示\"也不\"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, neither, nor 用在否定句中。

 

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